With regard to nuclear facilities, a distinction is made between on-site and off-site emergency preparedness. On-site emergency preparedness includes all technical and organisational measures taken within a nuclear facility to prevent or minimise any controlled or uncontrolled release of radioactive substances. Off-site measures are only required if the on-site emergency response fails completely or in parts. Off-site emergency preparedness includes all measures taken beyond the premises of the nuclear facility to protect the population and the environment from massive releases in the case of a nuclear incident or accident.
The following comments refer exclusively to off-site emergency preparedness.